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Dosimeters and radiometers

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Historical information on nuclear instrumentation (S.B. Chebyshev, V.V. Matveev, B.I. Khazanov, D.B. Khazanov)

Historical information on nuclear instrumentation (S.B. Chebyshev, V.V. Matveev, B.I. Khazanov, D.B. Khazanov)Enlarge


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In the beginning in the late 40's and early 50's wide practical use of ionizing radiation sources (reactors, accelerators, radioactive isotopes, etc.) to achieve high accuracy, consistency and repeatability of these measurements was only possible in industrial production appropriate instrumentation, and improvement of methods of measurement. No instrument for measuring ionizing radiation unthinkable practical use in the economy of nuclear energy, radioactive and fissile materials. Only on the basis of instruments for radiation measurements may control various processes in the nuclear industry and energy, management of these processes and their automation. Apparatus for measuring ionizing radiation is needed to ensure safe working conditions in the nuclear industry and energy and other organizations that use radioactive substances, and to prevent radioactive contamination of the environment. The use of instruments for radiation measurement is very effective in non-contact measurement and noninertial many physical and chemical quantities, monitoring and analyzing the composition and properties of matter.
All these factors resulted in the importance of the role and importance in modern science and technology of nuclear instrument, formed as an independent field of art, located at the junction of the measuring equipment, nuclear physics and electronics, and determined the pace of its development. For half a century of CDB-1, which later became NII-1, and finally SNIIP Scientific Engineering Centre "SNIIP" was and is the parent company of the art.
For a long time NII-1 (SNIIP) was virtually the only organization in the country, work for the establishment of a new apparatus for radiation measurement, intended for industrial production. The institute was actually the creator of the art. Preshedshie for 50 years has been designed and created over 2,000 new types of radiometric, dosimetric and spectrometric instruments and devices, many of which were first implemented and developed industry. Were satisfied with the basic priority needs of practically all economic sectors in the series, small-scale and unique equipment for measuring ionizing radiations of all kinds and in all environments, as well as unique instruments and instrument complexes to equip the country's major economic projects and address a number of scientific problems. Very valeno that nuclear instrumentation took shape as an independent technical direction, and, as in every other area of ​​measurement technology, it has developed its own object of measurement, theory, terminology, methods of designing equipment. choice of the structure of instruments and perform the necessary hardware.
Solved problems on nuclear instrumentation products related to measuring instruments and installations, ie the technical means used in the measurements that have normalized metrological properties and designed to generate signals of measuring information in a form accessible to direct perception. The originality of the instruments for measuring ionizing radiation is very large, and the difficulties in their creation is often much more severe than in the development of devices for measuring other physical quantities. They appear in the specificity of the measured values, and values ​​their diversity, breadth of range, the measurement conditions, etc.


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