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Dosimeters and radiometers

LLC "Axelbant"

Radiation Measurement (Chebyshev SB, Matveev VV, Khazanov BI, DB Khazanov)

Radiation Measurement (Chebyshev SB, Matveev VV, Khazanov BI, DB Khazanov)Enlarge


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The discovery of fission and radioactive nuclei, the use of these phenomena to develop nuclear weapons, reactors, accelerators, nuclear power industry and led to the emergence of new objects of measurement - radiation sources, they create radiation fields and the effects arising from the interaction of radiation with matter.They are characterized by a fairly large number of physical quantities. These include the values ​​that define the parameters of radiation sources (type of radiation source activity, specific, volume, surface activity), fields, particles and photons (fluxes and flux densities of alpha and beta particles, photon, neutron flux, molecules and nuclei), the results of the interaction of radiation with matter (produced in the medium dose and dose rate, linear energy loss in matter). In addition to these parameters, the particles and quanta are characterized by their number, energy (or energy distribution), time of appearance (or distribution over time), spatial distribution, as well as the correlation between events, and the interaction of radiation with matter related to the transfer and the transfer of energy and etc. 
Measurement of physical quantities characterizing the radioactive radiation, it is necessary to perform in all environments - solid, gaseous. liquid, plasma, and in a vacuum. Specificity is determined by measuring the statistical nature of nuclear processes. therefore the measurement of a single event or the characteristics of a single particle or quantum yields insufficient information. To accurately describe the processes necessary accumulation and statistical analysis of large amounts of data. 
In the process of measuring physical quantities revealed the need to measure time intervals of 10 "with up to several hours, to distinguish between particles with a mass of about 10 ~ are of the magnitude of the charge with a 1.6-S ''9 K determine the energy of photons from a dozen to tens of MeV electron and particles of a few hundredths of electron volts to several tens of MeV. The range of variables to be measured, sometimes up to 12-15 decimal orders. 
With the development of equipment for measuring ionizing radiation expanded range of tasks. If the first devices containing analog or pulse disproportionate detectors measured only the integral characteristics of radiation fluxes, later devices allowed to receive more detailed information about ionizing radiation and provided a measurement of virtually all of the above characteristics.


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