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Dosimeters and radiometers

LLC "Axelbant"

Radioactivity and life. YK Kudrytski (MD) 1971, Part 4.

Radioactivity and life. YK Kudrytski (MD) 1971, Part 4.Enlarge


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In addition to this property, all types of ionizing radiation have in various degrees of ability to penetrate the material body, excite the molecules, the migration of energy along the polymer molecules and complex formation of reactive radicals.
For shortwave electromagnetic radiation include x-rays and gamma rays, rays which can have different energies of several kilo-electron-ox (keV) to millions of electron volts (MeV). With increasing energy quanta of electromagnetic radiation increases their penetrating power and thus reduces the energy loss per unit path length, which is usually characterized by the so-called linear energy transfer (LET).
Quantum of X-rays occurs at the transition of an electron from one orbit inside an atom to another, as well as when braking fast moving electron or any other particle. Quantum is the gamma-ray is always the result of nuclear prevrasheny and only in the annihilation of the charged fusion opposite, chastitsvoznikaet charges outside the nucleus of an atom.
X-rays excited in the special electronic vacuum devices. which are called X-ray tubes. In addition. Elastic, they appear as parasitic radiation in many electronic vacuum devices. when the voltage across the electrodes exceeds several kilovolts (kV). One of these devices are widely distributed among the population, is a television, or more precisely, those tubes, and above all picture tube, which operate at vyst; pulp voltage of about 7-.10 sq.
and more. ,
Corpuscular radiation to carry streams of elementary particles and atomic nuclei. They occur in nuclear prevrasheniyak, as well as special devices: betatrons, cyclotrons, synchrotrons, and others. In such devices, the elementary particles are accelerated to high velocities, acquiring properties of corpuscular radiation. Here we can recall. what is now known more than a hundred species of elementary particles.
. Just as for X-rays and gamma rays, the penetrating power of corpuscular radiation depends on their energy. However, some of them, such as beta and especially alpha particles, are significantly less penetrating than X-and gamma-rays. Comparison of penetration of various radiations is convenient to carry when they are
. the same energy (Table 1).
Penetration and density of ionization of different types of radiation • with an energy of 2 MeV
Type of radiation
path length in air, m
ionization density (number of ions per 1 mm path)

An alpha particle beta particle gamma ray
0,01 10 600
6 600 0,1


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