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Dosimeters and radiometers

LLC "Axelbant"

Radioactivity and life. YK Kudrytski (MD) 1971 Part 23.

Radioactivity and life. YK Kudrytski (MD) 1971 Part 23.Enlarge


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is registered in Brazil, where in the state of Gia p ai, ri 0113 'is equal to the average. 1600 mrad, and in some places up to 12 000 l igast mrad.
The gamma-background area nasslennyh points of the European USSR, appeared from the measurements in recent years. ranges from 50 to 350 mrad per year, with the most common dose-order 90-130 mrad.
Modern man spends much of their time in buildings. It is therefore of particular interest to estimate the level of natural gamma-ray background and in places where people live and work.
In wooden houses gamma background is relatively small: about 50-100 mrad per year. In homes kamechnyh dose of gamma-ieluche. of building materials up to 100-150 mrad per year. However, elevated levels of radioactive substances in building materials, the dose increases to more than 10 times. In. Guarapari Brazilian cities and Meaype it reaches 5000-17000 mrad in '13, more than 00 J times the average level.
Under normal conditions, radioactive gases (radon, thoron) cos-• give a very small dose of external radiation of about 2 m rad per year. However, in larger cities radon concentration 'above and so, for example, in London external dose from radon is 20 mrad per year. In the underground shelters, tan, where more than emanating surfaces and reduced ventilation conditions, the dose reaches 80-100 II millirad over a year. Finally, in mines, 13 lrolozhennyh rocks with high radioactivity, the dose from radon and other radioactive gases can reach tens of thousands of mrad per year.
Radioactive gases - radon and hurrying, as the alpha-emitters in the lungs creates a somewhat higher dose than they receive from the gonads of the external gamma background. It is equal to 100-1000 mrad per year and is largely dependent on the concentration of radioactive gases into the room, which is very sharp changes in their ventilation.
Finally, the third source of ionizing radiation, as noted above, are radioactive substances in the organism, and their so called incorporated. In the human body incorporated radioactive solid matter comes to food, water and air when breathing out. In the human body, they create the dose to the gonads of the order of 20 mrad: each year. The main fraction of the dose of potassium-40 belongs. On average, every minute in the human body decomposes around 107 thousand atoms of radioactive potassium. Nearly that many. decay is radioactive. the isotope carbon-14. Radium in the human body only about 0.8 mkgramma. Every minute, falls about 2000 atoms incorporated radium. Radiation of radium-226, polonium-210, radon-222, carbon-14 and other-


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